“A Grand Plan to Vaccinate the World Against Covid Unraveled” is a blog post that explains the full story of the pharmaceutical industry’s plan to vaccinate every child on the planet, and how that plan was derailed. The post was written by Mark Blaxill, a former president of the International Vaccine Information Network, and is a must read for anyone who has a child, or an interest in protecting their health.

On Tuesday, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced a global initiative to vaccinate every one in the world with a vaccine against the largest, deadliest, and most easily preventable infectious disease of all time, the polio virus. The goal is to eventually eradicate the disease from the planet, a goal that seemed all but a pipe dream until recently.

It’s a potentially deadly outbreak, and the world is watching—and waiting.. Read more about most widely used covid vaccine in the world and let us know what you think.

This spring, an American epidemiologist…

Seth Berkeley.

to deliver the bad news to the poorest countries of the world: The millions of doses of Covid-19 vaccine they were promised have not arrived.

Countries expected to receive vaccines from Covax, a $1 billion population-based immunization program led by Dr. Berkeley and supported by the World Health Organization. But supplies from Covax’s main supplier in India, where Covid-19 disease has resurfaced, were suddenly unavailable.

Tens of millions of hospital workers who had received one dose of radiation suddenly did not receive a second dose. Prospects for rapidly training other frontline and vulnerable staff were rapidly diminishing.

The Covax program, set up in the early 2020s as a kind of Operation Warp Speed for the entire world, was to become a model of how to vaccinate humanity, starting with those who need it most. The plan called for all health workers in developing countries to be vaccinated.

Instead, the idealistic plan to inoculate nearly a billion people has run up against a reality that is distorted by the fundamental instinct of nations to prioritize their own populations and by the lack of productive capacity in the world.

Dr. Berkeley and a small team of world health experts spent months trying to get much of the world to buy vaccines from a common pool of rich and poor countries. As they worked out the details and raised the money, the countries that could afford it rushed to secure their own withdrawals first.

I understand the political realities, Dr. Berkeley said. In the end, people would just give us money and say: Good luck fighting us.

Most of the world’s poorest countries have become highly dependent on a single vaccine, produced by a single manufacturer in a single country. By a cruel coincidence, this supplier, the Serum Institute of India, was hit with the world’s worst Covid-19 epidemic.

Workers pack boxes of AstraZeneca vaccine vials at the Serum Institute of India.

Photo:

Rafiq Maqbool/Associated Press

Dear member, Dr. Berkeley’s office finally wrote in an email dated 28. April to most of the 92 developing countries that depend on Covax. We regret to inform you that due to the escalating Covid-19 crisis in India, Covax no longer plans to resume shipments… …in May.

We are doing our best to eliminate these delays as soon as possible, the email said.

Dr. Berkley, executive director of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, a public-private partnership that provides vaccines to children in the world’s poorest countries and is Covax’s central organization, said the company has done its best to navigate the hyper-competitive market for vaccines. We hear a lot of criticism, and the truth is we’ve tried to do what we think is right, he said. Insight 2020. Shouldn’t we have invested in India? Well, that was the quickest way.

The original plan was for the richest countries to buy enough vaccine for at least 10% of their population from Covax, which buys it in bulk. Along with the donations, this will subsidize vaccines for another 92 poor countries that will receive their doses for free.

Covax began shipping Covid-19 vaccines within three months of receiving the first injections in the world’s wealthiest countries – a lightning-fast pace compared to the five to 10 years it often takes for new vaccines to reach developing countries.

But the vaccines are now coming to an end, as are the countries they were designed to protect: Low- and middle-income countries in Latin America and South Asia are experiencing an increase in the incidence of covid 19. The program has produced 72 million vaccinations, far fewer than the 238 million expected by the end of May. This represents 4% of the 1.7 billion vaccines delivered worldwide.

About 20 million of the Covax vaccines came from India, which was supposed to supply 140 million by the end of the month but has halted exports as it works on vaccines for the country’s 1.3 billion population.

Unprotected

Covax, a WHO-backed program to provide Covid-19 vaccines to the world’s poorest countries, ran out of doses when its main supplier, the Serum Institute of India, stopped exporting them.

Distribution and dispensing of free Covax vaccines, selected areas

Percentage of doses

Population

Not by

Serum Institute

Some par

Serum Institute

Rwanda has used

almost all doses

he received, which is equal to

less than 3%.

Population

Democratic

The Republic

Congo

Pakistan, which

Cans smaller than

1% of the country’s population, is

is experiencing its third wave

Infections

Message: AstraZeneca distributes at the end of May; Pfizer distributes at the end of June. Deliveries of 25. May.

Source: Gavi (allocations); Factiva (deliveries)

Lindsay Huth/THE WALL STREET JOURNAL

Percentage of doses

Population

Some par

Serum Institute

Not by

Serum Institute

Rwanda has used

almost all doses

that he obtained, the

is less than 3%.

Population

Democratic

The Republic

Congo

Pakistan, which

doses received

currently

1% of the population,

is by his

third wave

Infections

Notification : AstraZeneca distributes at the end of May; Pfizer distributes at the end of June. Deliveries of 25. May.

Source: Gavi (allocations); Factiva (deliveries)

Lindsay Huth/THE WALL STREET JOURNAL

Percentage of doses

Population

Some par

Serum Institute

Not by

Serum Institute

Democratic

The Republic

Congo

Notification : AstraZeneca distributes at the end of May; Pfizer distributes at the end of June. Deliveries of 25. May.

Source: Gavi (allocations); Factiva (deliveries)

Lindsay Huth/THE WALL STREET JOURNAL

New lockouts devastate the economy and hospital staff die in countries where the ratio of medical staff to population is among the lowest. More dangerous variants have emerged in India, Brazil and South Africa, and although existing vaccines appear to be effective against them, uncontrolled transmission in countries with limited access to vaccination is associated with new mutations.

The Serum Institute declined to comment. The company said it plans to supply cans to Covax again by the end of the year. Gavi said it plans to resume some shipments in reduced quantities in the third quarter.

A vision

Covid-19 officially killed fewer than 80 people when Dr. Berkeley and another vaccine official, along with Dr. Berkeley’s wife, Cynthia Berkeley, M.D., first laid out the concept of vaccine sharing over drinks and a plate of nachos in the lobby of a hotel during the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, in January 2020.

Previous pandemics, such as HIV and swine flu, affected poorer countries that could not afford to compete with richer ones on advances such as antiretroviral drugs or flu vaccines.

This time, Dr. Berkeley said, rich and poor countries will be able to obtain the vaccine from the same common pool once it is developed. Any country, even the poorest, will be able to vaccinate hospital staff and the elderly first, and only then the rest of the population.

Like Operation Warp Speed, a multi-billion dollar US government initiative, the program will allow governments to provide the vaccines in advance, according to

Richard Hatchett,

executive director of the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovation (CEPI), who discussed the idea with Berkeley in Davos. This will make it easier for countries to manage the risks of investing in medicines while they are still in the testing phase.

Gavi, which was founded 20 years ago with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, has partnered with CEPI, another Gates-funded organization that invests in the development of vaccines for emerging infectious diseases.

Covax Covid-19 vaccines meet on May 8 in Antananarivo, Madagascar.

Photo:

Alexander Joe/Associated Press

The WHO supported this idea. Director-General

Tedros Adhanom Gebreyesus

has persuaded European heads of state and government to take part in a video conference on 24 April at which French President

Emmanuel Macron

created what eventually became known as the Covid-19 Vaccine Access Fund, or Covax.

This will show whether we can really work together for the benefit of many millions of people, said the Chancellor.

Angela Merkel,

and heads of state from Africa, Latin America and Asia.

No guard: Russia, which has developed its Sputnik V vaccine, China, which is working on its own scans, or the United States, which will not join the program until early 2021.

In June, the Global Vaccine Summit was held in the United Kingdom, where Covax signed its first major supply contract with the European Union.

AstraZeneca

PLC, Oxford University and the Serum Institute, the world’s largest vaccine manufacturer and a long-time partner in Gavi and Gates Foundation-funded projects. Serum is a well-known and reliable partner, capable of producing millions of doses at an affordable price.

Trevor Mandel,

President of Global Health at the Gates Foundation.

At the same time, many competing factories were reluctant to invest in the production of vaccines that were still in the testing phase because they did not believe the vaccines would be effective, said Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, then president of Gavi and now director general of the World Trade Organization. Once the effectiveness of the vaccines is proven, it will be too late to set up new production lines for delivery in the spring.

Malnutrition

Serum would become the first major supplier of a diversified portfolio of globally produced vaccines. But at the end of July, Covax had less than $600 million in cash to buy 2 billion doses. Many of the first donors’ pledges had not yet been made public, leaving Gavi with the responsibility of not fulfilling those pledges. Gavi executives said at the board meeting that they would not sign purchase commitments without cash, according to minutes accessed by the Journal.

Rich countries, including those committed to funding Covax, initially bought their own cans. In late May, the UK signed its own contract with AstraZeneca for 100 million doses. The United States, which did not make a commitment to Covax, has agreed to pay $300 million to AstraZeneca, bringing its commitment to $1.2 billion.

In June, the European Union, fearing that its own countries would compete for limited supplies, intervened and bought vaccines for its 450 million citizens. As part of the agreement with member states, the EU has prohibited governments from conducting parallel vaccine procurement programs. This means that France and Germany are now effectively barred from buying cans from the pool that they favour.

An EU spokeswoman said the organization requires all vaccine manufacturers in its portfolio to commit to providing vaccines to poor countries and that their contracts allow member states to transfer vaccine doses to developing countries.

A Syrian health worker in Idlib receives a dose of AstraZeneca’s Covid-19 vaccine as part of the Covax programme.

Photo:

Omar Hadj Kadour/Agence France-Presse/Getty Images

Between July 31 and July 10. In September, the EU concluded negotiations with four vaccine manufacturers – cooperation between

Sanofi SA

и

GlaxoSmithKline,

Johnson & Johnson,

CureVac

NV, and

Moderna Inc.

-and signed a 400 million-dose contract with AstraZeneca and a 300 million-dose contract with

Pfizer Inc.

the vaccine.

After buying enough doses to cover twice the entire population, the EU then pledged 400 million euros to Covax to buy 88 million doses for the poorest countries.

Officials familiar with the company said Covax employees have worked hard to add more than 100 countries to their pool, including Europe. The structure, which was still based on the hope of a common supply of vaccines for rich and poor countries, has become complex.

The richer countries had complicated applications that took weeks. The UK requested that countries be allowed to choose which vaccines they purchase from Covax and to make use of the possibility to exchange unused doses. The poorer countries had their own demands.

According to some people closely involved in the program, the demands have slowed vaccine sales. Covax got into the game too late, and in the meantime all they got were promises, said Alain Alsalhani, a pharmacist with Doctors Without Borders, which is part of the Covax manufacturing group.

A spokeswoman for Gavi said the talks have not slowed things down.

What began as a collective effort to spread vaccines around the world turned into a charity event by the end of the year. Several wealthy countries, including the United Kingdom, Canada, South Korea and New Zealand, have pledged to buy at least some cans of Covax. Most have chosen to donate directly.

Workers load vaccine boxes in Antananarivo, Madagascar, May 8.

Photo:

mamyrael/Agence France-Presse/Getty Images

Deficits

By the end of December, after months of price negotiations, Covax had received 2 billion doses, enough to vaccinate about 20% of the population in more than 100 countries. However, most of the agreements were flexible agreements without specific deadlines or concerned pharmaceutical manufacturers whose trials were not yet proven. When Europe and the United States began vaccinating, Covax’s only purchases were from AstraZeneca and Serum Institute.

Moderna, Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Sinopharm and Sputnik V have announced promising results from clinical trials. Covax has begun discussions with wealthy countries willing to donate surplus vaccines.

Second, variants of the coronavirus in the UK, South Africa and Brazil have raised concerns about the need for rich countries to introduce a third dose or vaccines for children. Suddenly, there was no more talk of sharing the money, according to a development official familiar with Covax’s operations.

Manufacturers, who were already struggling to meet demand, were faced with shortages of key raw materials such as bottles and filters.

An agreement between Covax and Sanofi SA for the supply of 200 million doses of vaccine was not fulfilled after subjects accidentally received the wrong doses during clinical trials. A $1.1 billion deal with

Novavax Inc.

stumbled when the company had to postpone clinical trials several times. A non-binding agreement in December with Johnson & Johnson for 500 million doses by 2022 has recently led to the purchase of 200 million doses that the company will seek to deliver this year.

People wait for the Covid 19 vaccine at a hospital in Prayagraj, India, May 22.

Photo:

Rajesh Kumar Singh/Associated Press

Chinese vaccine makers Sinopharm and Sinovac have not given clear answers about prices, delivery schedules or volumes, said a person familiar with the negotiations. The companies have also been slow to provide adequate data to WHO, such as details on the production or effectiveness of vaccinations in different age groups. Sinopharm and Sinovac did not respond to requests for comment.

Instead of transferring the vaccines through Covax, Beijing began simply loading its vaccines onto planes to foreign airports. Moscow has supplied vaccines under similar agreements.

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What should world leaders do to help developing countries deliver vaccines? Join the discussion below.

The 15th. WHO approved the AstraZeneca syringe for emergency use on February 6, six weeks after it was approved in the UK. This allowed Covax to make its first shipment to the developing country of Ghana, just weeks after Serum had begun exporting injections to other countries.

Three days later, the United States, now led by President Biden, announced a $2 billion contribution to Covax, with another $2 billion planned by 2022. The EU has increased its pledges to EUR 1 billion.

In those days, vaccines were already rare. This month, Covax struck a deal with Moderna for 500 million boxes, 466 million of which will not be shipped until 2022.

With whey exports suspended, Covax officials are urging rich countries that need cans to share some of their supplies. They also help companies build new facilities and remove bottlenecks in the supply chain.

The Biden administration plans to send 80 million cans abroad next month, including some to Covax. The EU has said it will give 100 million. That’s not enough.

Perhaps some of us had put too much hope in Covax, said Francis Dien Mwansa, a Health Ministry official who organizes vaccine distribution in Zambia, where only 0.7% of the population has received the first vaccination.

E-mail Gabriele Steinhauser at [email protected], Drew Hinshaw at [email protected] and Betsy McKay at [email protected]

Copyright ©2020 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. All rights reserved. 87990cbe856818d5eddac44c7b1cdeb8The Gates Foundation is launching a massive program to vaccinate every child to protect them from a deadly virus. Called the Gates Vaccine Initiative, the program is being funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and will involve the use of the Sabin polio vaccine, which still contains the live polio virus. The Gates Foundation has already announced they are funding the vaccination of every child in the US, and plans to continue vaccinating children worldwide.. Read more about vaccine used in seychelles and let us know what you think.

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